Astronomy's Ilse Cleeves has won the prestigious Johnson & Johnson Women in STEM2D (WiSTEM2D) Scholars Award. The Johnson & Johnson program seeks to “fuel development of future female STEM2D leaders and feed the STEM2D talent pipeline by awarding and sponsoring women at critical points in their careers.” More than 540 nominees from around the world were considered for this year’s awards. The six winners are all assistant professors or senior lecturers at their respective universities and represent women leaders in the disciplines of science, technology, engineering, math, manufacturing and design. Cleeves was recognized as the only winner in the award’s “Science” division.
For more information, see the announcement from the UVA College of Arts and Sciences.
During the virtual Astronomy Department Diploma ceremony on 17 May, the winners of the Lawrence W. Fredrick award of the Astronomy department and the winners of three undergraduate Astronomy awards were announced.
Lawrence W. Fredrick Award
This award recognizes one or two outstanding astronomy graduate teaching assistants (TA) in the preceding year. The award is named for the Chair of the Astronomy Department in the 1960's and 1970's. This year's award goes jointly to Luca Beale and Daniel Lin. Luca was cited for his work as head TA, his role in the graduate mentoring of undergraduate majors and his work in organising the Bob Rood Graduate symposium. Daniel was cited by for his outstanding TA work, going above and beyond the call of duty in his efforts to help and educate undergraduate students. The award includes a monetary prize and a certificate.
The McCullough Scholarship Prize
This scholarship recognizes the outstanding academic and research work of a second-year undergraduate student in Astronomy or Astronomy-Physics. It is named for Dr. Timothy P. McCullough who who was a radio astronomer at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC. Dr. McCullough made some of the first radio measurements of many objects in the Solar System. The scholarship was established by his son, Gene McCullough, who is a U.Va. alumnus, graduating with a degree in Physics and
being in the first contingent of Echols Scholars at U.Va. As the scholarship was established only last summer(in 2019) after graduation, the winner of last year has not been yet announced publicly. So both last year and this year's winner are announced here. 2019's winner was Camryn Phillips. She did research with Prof Phil Arras on using the satellite Kepler data to look for tidal effects caused by planets on their stars. 2020's winner is James Staeben. He worked with Prof Craig Sarazin on analyzing Chandra X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies, shedding light on how they form by merging processes. The award includes a $1000 prize and a certificate.
The Vyssotsky Prize
The Vyssotsky Prize recognizes an outstanding third year undergraduate student in Astronomy or Astronomy-Physics. Professor Alexander Vyssotsky worked at McCormick Observatory for 35 years beginning in 1923. This year, the Vyssotsky Prize goes to Josef Zimmerman. Josef did research with Physics Prof Kent Yagi on the study of the properties of nuclear matter in neutron stars using gravitational wave and X-ray observations. The Vyssotsky Prize consists of a certificate and a $1,000 fund for professional travel during the student's 4th year, such as an observing trip, or a presentation at a conference.
D. Nelson Limber Award
The D. Nelson Limber Award recognizes outstanding accomplishments in course work and astrophysical research by a graduating undergraduate major or majors. The award is named for Nelson Limber, who was a professor in the Astronomy Department at the University of Virginia and a leading figure in the theoretical study of the interstellar medium and galaxy clustering. This year, the Limber Award goes jointly to Megan Kenny and Eric Rohr. Both have excelled in their research work. Megan studied the properties of the solar wind and of the corona of the sun using VLA observations with NRAO scientist Tim Bastian. She will do graduate work at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Eric did research work in a variety of fields: with Prof Mark Whittle on Hubble data on a star-forming dwarf galaxy, and with Prof Shane Davis using a magneto-hydrodynamic code studying accretion disks around black holes. Eric spent last summer at the university of Zurich, Switzerland working on simulations of galaxy evolution. He will do graduate work at the University of Heidelberg. The prize consists of a certificate and an award of $1000. Since this year it is shared, each recipient will receive $500.
Graduate student, Hannah Lewis, and Undergraduate student, Mary Brewer, are researching phenomena in our own Milky Way galaxy through a Double Hoo grant, which pairs an undergraduate student with a graduate student mentor to conduct research on a topic of their choice. Learn more about their research here: https://news.virginia.edu/content/watching-exoplanets-disintegrate-one-dust-particle-time?utm_source=DailyReport&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=news
Congratulations to Thankful Cromartie who was awarded this year's Allan T. Gwathmey Memorial Award. This award comes from the UVa Graduate School of the College of Arts and Sciences for the best paper on a "fundamental problem in physical sciences" by a current graduate student or recent PhDs. It carries a cash award of $6,500 and is a great recognition of Thankful's work. Read the paper here: https://astronomycommunity.nature.com/users/291076-h-thankful-cromartie/...
The NASA Hubble Fellowship Program (NHFP) supports outstanding postdoctoral scientists to pursue independent research which contributes to NASA Astrophysics, using theory, observation, experimentation, or instrumental development. The NHFP preserves the legacy of NASA’s previous postdoctoral fellowship programs. Once selected, fellows are named to one of three sub-categories corresponding to NASA’s “big questions”: How Does the Universe Work? - Einstein Fellows; How Did We Get Here? - Hubble Fellows; Are We Alone? - Sagan Fellows.
Thankful Cromartie was born and raised in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and received her BS with highest honors in physics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. She has pursued her PhD work as a graduate student in the University of Virginia's Department of Astronomy, where she currently works under the supervision of Dr. Scott Ransom as a National Radio Astronomy Observatory Grote Reber doctoral fellow. She will be defending her PhD in April 2020.
Thankful's research focuses on using millisecond pulsar (MSP) timing to explore fundamental physics. She is a member of the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration, whose goal is to detect low-frequency gravitational waves from supermassive black hole binaries with an array of precisely timed MSPs. As a graduate student, she has explored topics under the NANOGrav umbrella, including the discovery of new MSPs for inclusion in the array using the Arecibo and Green Bank radio telescopes. Thankful has also worked on constraining the poorly understood neutron star interior equation of state using pulsar-timing observations of relativistic Shapiro delay. As an Einstein fellow at Cornell, she will continue to work within NANOGrav, pursuing ambitious searches for MSPs and using the full extent of the NANOGrav dataset to further constrain the equation of state. She looks forward to conducting joint analyses of radio and Gamma/X-ray data to improve NANOGrav's sensitivity and further understand the behavior of matter at supranuclear densities.
The AAS Fellows program was established in 2019 to confer recognition upon AAS members for achievement and extraordinary service to the field of astronomy and the American Astronomical Society. AAS Fellows are recognized for their contributions toward the AAS mission of enhancing and sharing humanity's scientific understanding of the universe. Roger Chevalier was recently selected as an American Astronomical Society Legacy Fellow. Learn more here: https://aas.org/press/aas-announces-first-class-aas-fellows
South Africa's MeerKAT peers deep into the Universe - UVA Grad Student Allison Matthews continues to work on this project to learn more about star formation. Learn more about her work here: http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/South_Africas_MeerKAT_peers_deep_into_...
A group of astronomers, including U.Va.'s Craig Sarazin, have observed two groups of galaxies slamming into one another at a speed of about 4 million miles per hour. The colliding groups will eventually merge and form a single cluster of galaxies; these are the largest objects in the Universe. Clusters contain as much material as one million, billion stars. This cosmic train wreck was observed with a number of space and ground-based observatories, including by U.Va. astronomers using the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in New Mexico. U.Va. is a member of APO. The picture above shows a composite of the X-ray and optical images of the merging groups. These observations were the subject of an image press release by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, which contains much more information and many more images. There is also a video about this collision on YouTube at https://youtu.be/PVFkc46CyYY.
Astronomy Professor Kelsey Johnson recently gave a TED Talk on Light Pollution and 5 ridiculously easy was to fix it! You can watch her talk at Kelsey Johnson TED Talk.
Astronomy Professor Ilse Cleeves was awarded a Packard Fellowship for Science and Engineering to support her research on astrochemistry and the formation of planets. The award was announced by the David and Lucile Packard Foundation on Tuesday, October 15. These Fellowships are among the most prestigious and selective in American science. Previous Fellows include scientists who went on to be awarded Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics, the Fields Medal in Mathematics, the Alan T. Waterman Award, MacArthur Fellowships, and election to the National Academies. The Fellowship provides $875,000 of support over five years.
You can learn more about Professor Cleeves' research in this UVA Today article.
Follow this link for more information about the 2019 Packard Fellows
UVa Astronomy graduate student Thankful Cromartie led a paper published in Nature Astronomy detailing the discovery of the most massive neutron star ever observed. This work was conducted along with her advisor Scott Ransom (of UVa and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory) and the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration. The team used pulsar timing — accounting for every rotation of dense, rapidly rotating stellar remnants — to measure the mass of J0740+6620, a 2.89-ms pulsar with a binary white dwarf companion. This work is significant because the way matter behaves (the "equation of state") deep inside the supranuclear-density interiors of neutron stars is very poorly understood. Each formulation of the equation of state dictates the mass at which the star should collapse; therefore, finding more and more massive neutron stars helps put constraints on the equation of state and improves our understanding of nuclear physics and stellar evolution. The work was covered by CNN, ABC News, USA Today, Gizmodo, Forbes, and other news sources. A summary she wrote of the paper (with a link to the original) can be found here: https://go.nature.com/307tCUg. The NRAO press release can be found here: https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-09/gbo-mmn091319.php
A group of astronomers, including Craig Sarazin from U.Va., have made the first high-resolution, high-frequency radio map of the Moon. The image, at a radio frequency of 90 GHz, was made with the MUSTANG2 camera on the Green Bank Telescope, the world’s largest steerable telescope. At this radio frequency, the image shows heat radiation form the lunar surface, and brighter regions are hotter. The image shows many of the same features as seen in more familiar optical images. However, because temperature variations across the lunar surface are smaller than the variations in the amount of reflected sunlight, the image has less contrast than an optical image. Also, the optically dark portion of the Moon in optical light is still visible in the radio, as the surface is still warm.
For more images and information, see the press release by the Green Bank Observatory at https://greenbankobservatory.org/gbt-snaps-hot-photos-of-the-moon/
Below: Radio image of the Moon at 90m GHz made with the MUSTANG2 camera on the Green Bank Telescope. Above: Optical image at the same phase.
While our solar system contains dozens of moons orbiting the planets, there is as yet no clear detection of a moon orbiting an extrasolar planet. A group of astronomers and planetary scientists, led by former UVa graduate student Apurva Oza, have a new paper accepted to the Astrophysical Journal (http://arxiv.org/abs/1908.10732) which shows that these exo-moons may have been hiding in plain sight. Absorption of starlight as it passes by the planet has often been assumed to be due to atoms in the planet’s atmosphere. Oza et al.’s idea is that there may be a volcanic “exo-Io” orbiting the exo-planet which is venting atoms to space which then absorb the starlight. This problem is how these moons may survive the harsh environment near the star. Their calculations find that a handful of known exo-planet systems may be explained by volcanic exo-Io’s. This collaboration was begun in Charlottesville and included a number of current and former UVa/richNRAO people: Oza, Bob Johnson, Carl Schmidt, Chenliang Huang and Arielle Moullet. The paper has recently been discussed in the press at http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/Hints_of_a_volcanically_active_exomoon_999.html.
Nitya Kallivayalil, an associate professor in Astronomy, has been award a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE). This is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on outstanding scientists and engineers who are beginning their independent research careers and show exceptional promise for leadership in science and technology. Nitya was nominated by the National Science Foundation. The award was announced in a press release from the White House. The press release can be found here:
Photo: Nitya Kallivayalil and Dr. Kelvin Droegemeier, Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy.
(PHOTO CREDIT: DOE PHOTOGRAPHER, DONICA PAYNE)
Friday | July 12 | 6:30 - 9:30 p.m. | FREE
Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Apollo 11's moon landing at Light House Studio/Vinegar Hill Theatre. Enjoy a special screening from the new PBS American Experience series,Chasing the Moon, followed by a panel discussion with distinguished experts that represent the past, present and future of space research and exploration. This event is free, but registration is required.
Join WVPT and WHTJ PBS on Friday, July 12th for a special event celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing! This event will include opening remarks byUVA Department of Astronomy Professor, Edward Murphy, an exclusive hour-long screening of the new PBS American Experience film, “Chasing the Moon,” followed by a panel discussion with distinguished experts that represent the past, present, and future of space research and exploration. Doors open at 6:30 PM. This event is free, but registration is required.
Edward Murphy: University of Virginia Department of Astronomy - Director of the McCormick Observatory
Carrie Rhoads: NASA Langley Research Center - Flight Systems Engineer
Christopher P. Goyne, Ph.D.: University of Virginia Associate Professor of Mech. & Aero. Engr. - Director, Aerospace Research Laboratory / Libertas CubeSat Spacecraft Project
Erin Puckette: University of Virginia 2019 Aerospace Engineering - Virginia CubeSat Constellation Lead
Larry Fredrick: Former Chair of the University of Virginia Astronomy Department - Former Director of McCormick Observatory
For more about this event and the Chasing the Moon film, visit us at ideastations.org/chasingthemoon.
Join the conversation throughout the film at #ChasingTheMoonPBS.
Steve Layman, an amateur astronomer who’s made a career in music, works with the astronomy department to bring telescopes to schools and Scouts. (Photo by Sanjay Suchak, University Communications)
The telescope loaner program, called CLUSTER (for Chandra Loans UVA’s Telescopes to Educators) began with an education grant from NASA’s Chandra X-Ray Observatory. It is now run with financial support from the Friends of the McCormick Observatory, a group of amateur astronomers and enthusiasts who volunteer time and resources during public observing nights (the first and third Fridays of every month) at UVA’s historic observatory. Members of the Charlottesville Astronomical Society also volunteer during events. Learn more here: https://news.virginia.edu/content/telescopes-schools-scouts-bring-astronomy-life-children-virginia
The Astronomy Department is pleased to announce the creation of the Timothy P. McCullough, Jr. Scholarship in Astronomy, named for Dr. McCullough (1910-2004), who was a research physicist and radio astronomer at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC. Dr. McCullough made some of the first radio measurements of many objects in the Solar System. His radio measurements of Venus were among the first to indicate that Venus had a very high surface temperature. He also studied Mars and Jupiter. Later, his interest turned to supernovas, galaxies, and solar flares. Dr. McCullough was a Naval veteran of World War II and the Korean War. In the image below, Dr. McCullough is shown in Attu in the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, making radio observations of the Sun during the 12 September 1950 total solar eclipse. More information on Dr. McCullough’s life and career can be found at: https://aas.org/obituaries/timothy-p-mccullough-jr-1910-2004
The scholarship of $1,000 for one year will be awarded each year to a rising 3rd year Astronomy or Astronomy-Physics major. The first award will be announced this summer (2019).
The award is made possible by a very generous gift from Dr. McCullough’s son, Robert (Gene) McCullough. Gene McCullough is a U.Va. alum who graduated with a degree in Physics and was in the first contingent of Echols Scholars at U.Va.
Astronomers, including Craig Sarazin from U.Va., have discovered jets shooting out at nearly the speed of light from the regions around a black hole, and which are changing their direction rapidly (minutes to hours). This reorientation of the jets is due to the Lense-Thirring Precession, an effect predicted by Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. This effect is expected to occur near a rotating black hole, and is caused by the rotating black hole dragging space and time around with it as it rotates. This is believed to be the first direct observation of the Lense-Thirring Precession occurring around a black hole. The black hole is surrounded by a disk of material (an accretion disk). The rotation of this accretion disk and the spin of the black hole are misaligned. The inner part of the accretion disk is wobbling (“precessing”) as a result of the very strong gravity of the black hole. This wobble is similar to that of a spinning top as it slows down, but in this case it is due to the distortions of space and time from the rotating black hole, as predicted by Einstein’s theory.
The black hole is part of a binary star system with the rather unromantic name V404 Cygni. The precessing jets were observed in radio emission with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a network of ten radio telescopes spread across the United States, from the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean to Hawaii. The VLBA is operated by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), whose headquarters are on the U.Va. grounds.
This research was published on Monday, April 29 in the journal Nature. The research is part of a project originally conceived in Charlottesville by James Miller-Jones (originally a scientist at NRAO, now a professor at Curtin University in Perth, Australia), Greg Sivakoff (originally a graduate student and post-doc at U.Va., now a professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada), and Sarazin.
The figure shows radio emission from the black hole V404 Cygni superposed on a model for the binary system, accretion disk, and precessing jets.
Video from the observations and simulations of the system are available at. https://vimeo.com/icrar/Cygni-animation
You can read more about the discovery in the article at UVAToday.
A University of Virginia-led program, “Dark Skies, Bright Kids,” has been bringing astronomy to local schools in Albemarle County for more than 10 years, opening up a universe of possibilities and knowledge for children in the Charlottesville community.
You can watch the video at UVA Today: Reaching for the Stars in the UVA Community
Graduate student Mengyao Liu has been selected as a 2019-2020 Jefferson Scholars Foundation Dissertation Year Fellow. The merit based fellowships are designed to "identify Ph.D. and M.B.A. candidates who demonstrate outstanding achievement and the highest promise as scholars, teachers, public servants, and business leaders in the United States and beyond. Once selected, Jefferson Fellows are charged with furthering the quality of education, intellectual life, and mission of the University."
Mengyao also received the 2019 Allan Talbott Gwathmey Memorial Award, "an honor reserved for the most accomplished graduate students in the physical sciences at the University of Virginia in recognition of a distinguished scholarly publication.”
Mengyao's research on luminous protostars was also recently featured in a SOFIA Spotlight article.
An international group of astronomers, including Jonathan Tan from the University of Virginia, have made observations of a molecular cloud that is collapsing to form two massive protostars that will eventually become a binary star system. The observations showed that, even at this early stage, the cloud contains two objects: a massive “primary” central star and another “secondary” forming star, with a combined mass of at least 18 times that of our Sun. For the first time, the researchers were able to use these observations to deduce the dynamics of the system. The observations showed that the two forming stars are separated by distance of about 180 astronomical units (one astronomical unit is the distance from the Earth to the Sun) and they orbit each other with a period of, at most, 570 years.
According to Tan, "Massive stars are important throughout the universe, including for producing the heavy elements that make up our Earth and our own bodies, but their formation mechanism is literally shrouded in mystery, being so deeply embedded in dusty clouds.”
The Chambliss Astronomy Achievement Student Awards are given to recognize exemplary research by undergraduate and graduate students who present at one of the poster sessions at the meetings of the AAS. Awardees are honored with a Chambliss medal or, in the case of honorable mention, a certificate. Three University of Virginia student were among the winners! Graduate students H. Thankful Cromartie and Molly Finn were both Medal winners, and undergraduate Eric Rohr was an Honorable Mention. More information and full list of winners can be found here: https://aas.org/posts/news/2019/01/congratulations-aas-233-chambliss-student-awards-winners
Late Sunday night into early Monday morning, the moon will “go from full, to nearly disappearing, to being full again in the course of a few hours,” University of Virginia astronomy professor Ed Murphy said. Learn more at this UVA Today Article.
Astronomers from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) reached the conclusion that after a “lazy” start of star formation for the first few billion years of their lives, both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds are now forming new stars at a rapid rate. They made the first-ever detailed chemical maps of galaxies beyond our own. UVA graduate and study leader, David Nidever said, “Reading these maps helps us reconstruct the history of how these galaxies formed their stars.” “Both the Magellanic Clouds started off by making stars very slowly,” says Christian Hayes, a key member of the research team and current graduate student at UVA. Read more here: https://www.sdss.org/press-releases/its-never-too-late-to-get-active/
Image: Rachael Beaton, Borja Anguiano and Steve Majewski
This Hubble image taken by University of Virginia astronomer Craig Sarazin of the nearby elliptical galaxy Messier 105 (also called NGC 3379) is currently the Hubble Space Telescope Picture of the Week (January 7 - 11). Although the image was taken primarily to study the relationship between stellar mass black holes and globular star clusters, it has also been used to study the 200 million solar mass supermassive black hole at the galaxy center and star formation in and near this galaxy. More information and images are available at: https://spacetelescope.org/images/potw1901a/